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STATUS AND FUTURE OF SWINE DISEASE AND CONTROL IN CANADA 2007

时间:2011-11-15 16:45:08  来源:  作者:Jane Pritchard
Jane Pritchard BA DVM PhD 
ABSTRACT
Canada has a status of “non-indigenous” for the significant Foreign Animal or Epidemic Diseases. These include Foot and Mouth Disease, Brucella abortus, Brucella suis, Pseudo rabies, and Hog Cholera. Some of these diseases have never been seen in Canada, and some like Foot and Mouth Disease, Hog Cholera and Brucellosis have occurred but been eradicated. Canada has a stringent prevention program for Epidemic Diseases that is managed by the veterinarians in the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), a national government agency.
Production diseases cause serious economic losses for swine producers in Canada. These have been traditionally managed by veterinarians working in swine private practice and for large swine producing corporations. These production diseases include Streptococcus suis, Proliferative Enteropathy (Lawsonia intracellularis), Baby pig diarrhea (Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli), pneumonia, Swine Dysentery, PRRS (Blue Ear) and Porcine Circovirus Associated Diseases (PCVAD).
The Canadian government has recently named Porcine Circovirus Associated Diseases (PCVAD) as the largest disease threat to the profitability of its hog industry. Seventy six million Canadian dollars has been set aside for work over the next 4 years to combat this disease and enhance prosperity and stability in the hog sector.
The four year program will focus on assisting producers and the industry in four areas:
1.      Herd inoculation
2.      Research
3.      Biosecurity best management practices
4.      Finding long term risk management solutions.
Additionally a long term surveillance program to help identify emerging diseases will be established.
1. A BRIEF HISTORY OF FOREIGN (EPIDEMIC) SWINE DISEASES IN CANADA
Canada is one of only a few countries which remain free of most of the serious foreign animal or epizootic diseases of swine. It is a high priority of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) that Foreign Animal Diseases, especially a rapidly spreading disease such as Foot and Mouth Disease, be recognized and then eradicated as soon as possible if they were to occur. The consequences would depend on the size and nature of the outbreak, but it is hoped that they can be greatly minimized by early identification, containment and elimination.
Veterinary practitioners are most likely to be the first to encounter and recognize a Foreign Animal Disease once it has gained entry into Canada. It is hoped that early recognition by veterinarians may prevent widespread transmission and great expense to the Canadian public. The CFIA conducts training for private veterinarians to support this.
1.1Porcine brucellosis
During 2006, Canada again remained free of porcine brucellosis. Brucella suis has never been identified in Canadian swine.
A statistically-based national swine serum survey was conducted in 2001-2002. Approximately 16,000 samples from slaughter sows and boars were tested with negative results to demonstrate that the Canadian swine population remains free of porcine brucellosis at or above a prevalence of 0.02% (2/10,000) with 95% confidence.
Brucella suis biovar 4 occurs in Rangifer species (caribou and reindeer) in the Canadian Arctic. Movement controls within the country prevent these animals from entering the livestock producing areas of Canada.
1.2 Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)
Canada has been disease free for FMD since the last outbreak in Saskatchewan in 1952.
1.3 Hog cholera (Classic swine fever)
This was last reported in Canada in 1962. Canada is free of this disease.  
1.4 Trichinellosis
The last case in humans from domestic pork was in 1980. The last case in a domestic pig (without human disease) was in 1996. Canada’s domestic swine herd is free of Trichinellosis. Cases in humans occur rarely and are associated with consuming undercooked wild boar, walrus or bear meat.
Canada has an active control program for Trichinellosis made up of three parts, surveillance, regulation and testing. The national lab in Saskatoon is responsible for test development and validation. Regulations prohibit the feeding of garbage to pigs. Surveillance is made up of 2 parts; one is testing of 18,000 swine at slaughter with the digestion test, and the other is serological testing 16,000 sows every 3-5 years.
1.5 Pseudo Rabies
This disease is not present in Canada and has never been present in Canada. It has however been present in the United States. 
2. CANADA’S BIOSECURITY OR PROTECTION PROGRAM AGAINST FOREIGN OR EPIDEMIC DISEASE.
The Health of Animals Act is the national regulation that provides the CFIA with the power to make certain diseases reportable within Canada, and to prevent and control these reportable diseases. It also is the legislation that enables compensation to animal owners when their animals are destroyed by the CFIA if these disease outbreaks occur. All animal owners, veterinarians and veterinary laboratories are required under this Act to report any suspicion of a named foreign animal disease to the CFIA.
The CFIA has strict regulations controlling the import of animals and animal products that are rigidly enforced to keep Canada free from foreign animal disease. There are also educational programs for farmers and veterinarians to help them recognize and respond to any suspicion of a foreign animal disease.
If a foreign animal disease is diagnosed it must be confirmed by the national laboratory. If it is confirmed there are 5 steps that occur to control and eradicate the disease.
1)The immediate humane destruction of all infected and exposed animals with compensation to the owner for destroyed animals. Appropriate disposal of all carcasses.
2)Surveillance and tracing of all potentially infected or exposed animals. This has been made more efficient through the national traceability program with animal identification and premise identification systems.
3)Strict quarantine and animal movement controls.
4)Strict decontamination of infected premises.
5)Zoning to define infected and disease free areas. This includes an infected zone, a security zone, a buffer zone and a control zone.
Additionally every province now has a Foreign Animal Disease Eradication Plan (FADES) and many of these are tested in disease outbreak simulations.
Biosecurity is also practiced at the farm level with swine to control both foreign animal diseases and production diseases. Visitors have restricted access to swine barns. In many barns workers and visitors must shower and completely change clothing to enter and exit the barns. Also if the visitor has been at another swine barn within the last 48 hours, or just returned from outside the country, they are prevented from entering the barns. Vehicles are also restricted from access to the yards and fences are in place with gates around the properties. Diligent rodent control programs are also used. Many integrated swine operations have also moved towards multiple isolated locations for barns to lessen the animal density and risk of disease spread. 
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